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Oracle Data Pump (expdp and impdp) in Oracle Database 10g

Oracle Data Pump is a newer, faster and more flexible alternative to the "exp" and "imp" utilities used in previous Oracle versions. In addition to basic import and export functionality data pump provides a PL/SQL API and support for external tables.

Related articles.

Getting Started

For the examples to work we must first unlock the SCOTT account and create a directory object it can access. The directory object is only a pointer to a physical directory, creating it does not actually create the physical directory on the file system of the database server.

CONN / AS SYSDBA
ALTER USER scott IDENTIFIED BY tiger ACCOUNT UNLOCK;

CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY test_dir AS '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/';
GRANT READ, WRITE ON DIRECTORY test_dir TO scott;

Existing directories can be queried using the ALL_DIRECTORIES view.

Note. Data Pump is a server-based technology, so it typically deals with directory objects pointing to physical directories on the database server. It does not write to the local file system on your client PC.

Table Exports/Imports

The TABLES parameter is used to specify the tables that are to be exported. The following is an example of the table export and import syntax.

expdp scott/tiger@db10g tables=EMP,DEPT directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=EMP_DEPT.dmp logfile=expdpEMP_DEPT.log

impdp scott/tiger@db10g tables=EMP,DEPT directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=EMP_DEPT.dmp logfile=impdpEMP_DEPT.log

For example output files see expdpEMP_DEPT.log and impdpEMP_DEPT.log.

The TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION=APPEND parameter allows data to be imported into existing tables.

Schema Exports/Imports

The OWNER parameter of exp has been replaced by the SCHEMAS parameter which is used to specify the schemas to be exported. The following is an example of the schema export and import syntax.

expdp scott/tiger@db10g schemas=SCOTT directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=SCOTT.dmp logfile=expdpSCOTT.log

impdp scott/tiger@db10g schemas=SCOTT directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=SCOTT.dmp logfile=impdpSCOTT.log

For example output files see expdpSCOTT.log and impdpSCOTT.log.

Database Exports/Imports

The FULL parameter indicates that a complete database export is required. The following is an example of the full database export and import syntax.

expdp system/password@db10g full=Y directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=DB10G.dmp logfile=expdpDB10G.log

impdp system/password@db10g full=Y directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=DB10G.dmp logfile=impdpDB10G.log

For an example output file see expdpDB10G.log.

INCLUDE and EXCLUDE

The INCLUDE and EXCLUDE parameters can be used to limit the export/import to specific objects. When the INCLUDE parameter is used, only those objects specified by it will be included in the export/import. When the EXCLUDE parameter is used, all objects except those specified by it will be included in the export/import. The two parameters are mutually exclusive, so use the parameter that requires the least entries to give you the result you require. The basic syntax for both parameters is the same.

INCLUDE=object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]
EXCLUDE=object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]

The following code shows how they can be used as command line parameters.

expdp scott/tiger@db10g schemas=SCOTT include=TABLE:"IN ('EMP', 'DEPT')" directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=SCOTT.dmp logfile=expdpSCOTT.log

expdp scott/tiger@db10g schemas=SCOTT exclude=TABLE:"= 'BONUS'" directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=SCOTT.dmp logfile=expdpSCOTT.log

If the parameter is used from the command line, depending on your OS, the special characters in the clause may need to be escaped, as follows. Because of this, it is easier to use a parameter file.

include=TABLE:\"IN (\'EMP\', \'DEPT\')\"

A single import/export can include multiple references to the parameters, so to export tables, views and some packages we could use either of the following approaches.

INCLUDE=TABLE,VIEW,PACKAGE:"LIKE '%API'"

or

INCLUDE=TABLE
INCLUDE=VIEW
INCLUDE=PACKAGE:"LIKE '%API'"

Multiple objects can be targeted in once statement using the LIKE and IN operators.

EXCLUDE=SCHEMA:"LIKE 'SYS%'"

EXCLUDE=SCHEMA:"IN ('OUTLN','SYSTEM','SYSMAN','FLOWS_FILES','APEX_030200','APEX_PUBLIC_USER','ANONYMOUS')"

The valid object type paths that can be included or excluded can be displayed using the DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS, and TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS views.

Network Exports/Imports (NETWORK_LINK)

The NETWORK_LINK parameter identifies a database link to be used as the source for a network export/import. The following database link will be used to demonstrate its use.

CONN / AS SYSDBA
GRANT CREATE DATABASE LINK TO test;

CONN test/test
CREATE DATABASE LINK remote_scott CONNECT TO scott IDENTIFIED BY tiger USING 'DEV';

In the case of exports, the NETWORK_LINK parameter identifies the database link pointing to the source server. The objects are exported from the source server in the normal manner, but written to a directory object on the local server, rather than one on the source server. Both the local and remote users require the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role granted to them.

expdp test/test@db10g tables=SCOTT.EMP network_link=REMOTE_SCOTT directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=EMP.dmp logfile=expdpEMP.log

For imports, the NETWORK_LINK parameter also identifies the database link pointing to the source server. The difference here is the objects are imported directly from the source into the local server without being written to a dump file. Although there is no need for a DUMPFILE parameter, a directory object is still required for the logs associated with the operation. Both the local and remote users require the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role granted to them.

impdp test/test@db10g tables=SCOTT.EMP network_link=REMOTE_SCOTT directory=TEST_DIR logfile=impdpSCOTT.log remap_schema=SCOTT:TEST

Flashback Exports

The exp utility used the CONSISTENT=Y parameter to indicate the export should be consistent to a point in time. By default the expdp utility exports are only consistent on a per table basis. If you want all tables in the export to be consistent to the same point in time, you need to use the FLASHBACK_SCN or FLASHBACK_TIME parameter.

The FLASHBACK_TIME parameter value is converted to the approximate SCN for the specified time.

expdp ..... flashback_time=systimestamp

# In parameter file.
flashback_time="to_timestamp('09-05-2011 09:00:00', 'DD-MM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')"

# Escaped on command line.
expdp ..... flashback_time=\"to_timestamp\(\'09-05-2011 09:00:00\', \'DD-MM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS\'\)\"

Not surprisingly, you can make exports consistent to an earlier point in time by specifying an earlier time or SCN, provided you have enough UNDO space to keep a read consistent view of the data during the export operation.

If you prefer to use the SCN, you can retrieve the current SCN using one of the following queries.

SELECT current_scn FROM v$database;
SELECT DBMS_FLASHBACK.get_system_change_number FROM dual;
SELECT TIMESTAMP_TO_SCN(SYSTIMESTAMP) FROM dual;

That SCN is then used with the FLASHBACK_SCN parameter.

expdp ..... flashback_scn=5474280

The following queries may prove useful for converting between timestamps and SCNs.

SELECT TIMESTAMP_TO_SCN(SYSTIMESTAMP) FROM dual;
SELECT SCN_TO_TIMESTAMP(5474751) FROM dual;

In 11.2, the introduction of legacy mode means that you can use the CONSISTENT=Y parameter with the expdp utility if you wish.

Miscellaneous Information

Unlike the original exp and imp utilities all data pump ".dmp" and ".log" files are created on the Oracle server, not the client machine.

All data pump actions are performed by multiple jobs (server processes not DBMS_JOB jobs). These jobs are controlled by a master control process which uses Advanced Queuing. At runtime an advanced queue table, named after the job name, is created and used by the master control process. The table is dropped on completion of the data pump job. The job and the advanced queue can be named using the JOB_NAME parameter. Cancelling the client process does not stop the associated data pump job. Issuing "ctrl+c" on the client during a job stops the client output and presents a command prompt. Typing "status" at this prompt allows you to monitor the current job.

Export> status

Job: SYS_EXPORT_FULL_01
  Operation: EXPORT
  Mode: FULL
  State: EXECUTING
  Bytes Processed: 0
  Current Parallelism: 1
  Job Error Count: 0
  Dump File: D:\TEMP\DB10G.DMP
    bytes written: 4,096

Worker 1 Status:
  State: EXECUTING
  Object Schema: SYSMAN
  Object Name: MGMT_CONTAINER_CRED_ARRAY
  Object Type: DATABASE_EXPORT/SCHEMA/TYPE/TYPE_SPEC
  Completed Objects: 261
  Total Objects: 261

Data pump performance can be improved by using the PARALLEL parameter. This should be used in conjunction with the "%U" wildcard in the DUMPFILE parameter to allow multiple dumpfiles to be created or read. The same wildcard can be used during the import to allow you to reference multiple files.

expdp scott/tiger@db10g schemas=SCOTT directory=TEST_DIR parallel=4 dumpfile=SCOTT_%U.dmp logfile=expdpSCOTT.log

impdp scott/tiger@db10g schemas=SCOTT directory=TEST_DIR parallel=4 dumpfile=SCOTT_%U.dmp logfile=impdpSCOTT.log

The DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS view can be used to monitor the current jobs.

system@db10g> select * from dba_datapump_jobs;

OWNER_NAME                     JOB_NAME                       OPERATION
------------------------------ ------------------------------ ------------------------------
JOB_MODE                       STATE                              DEGREE ATTACHED_SESSIONS
------------------------------ ------------------------------ ---------- -----------------
SYSTEM                         SYS_EXPORT_FULL_01             EXPORT
FULL                           EXECUTING                               1                 1

Data Pump API

Along with the data pump utilities Oracle provide an PL/SQL API. The following is an example of how this API can be used to perform a schema export.

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000
DECLARE
  l_dp_handle       NUMBER;
  l_last_job_state  VARCHAR2(30) := 'UNDEFINED';
  l_job_state       VARCHAR2(30) := 'UNDEFINED';
  l_sts             KU$_STATUS;
BEGIN
  l_dp_handle := DBMS_DATAPUMP.open(
    operation   => 'EXPORT',
    job_mode    => 'SCHEMA',
    remote_link => NULL,
    job_name    => 'EMP_EXPORT',
    version     => 'LATEST');

  DBMS_DATAPUMP.add_file(
    handle    => l_dp_handle,
    filename  => 'SCOTT.dmp',
    directory => 'TEST_DIR');

  DBMS_DATAPUMP.add_file(
    handle    => l_dp_handle,
    filename  => 'SCOTT.log',
    directory => 'TEST_DIR',
    filetype  => DBMS_DATAPUMP.KU$_FILE_TYPE_LOG_FILE);

  DBMS_DATAPUMP.metadata_filter(
    handle => l_dp_handle,
    name   => 'SCHEMA_EXPR',
    value  => '= ''SCOTT''');

  DBMS_DATAPUMP.start_job(l_dp_handle);

  DBMS_DATAPUMP.detach(l_dp_handle);
END;
/

Once the job has started the status can be checked using.

system@db10g> select * from dba_datapump_jobs;

External Tables (Unloading/Loading Data Using External Tables)

Oracle have incorporated support for data pump technology into external tables. The ORACLE_DATAPUMP access driver can be used to unload data to data pump export files and subsequently reload it. The unload of data occurs when the external table is created using the "AS" clause.

CREATE TABLE emp_xt
  ORGANIZATION EXTERNAL
   (
     TYPE ORACLE_DATAPUMP
     DEFAULT DIRECTORY test_dir
     LOCATION ('emp_xt.dmp')
   )
   AS SELECT * FROM emp;

The data can then be queried using the following.

SELECT * FROM emp_xt;

The syntax to create the external table pointing to an existing file is similar, but without the "AS" clause. In this case we will do it the same schema, but this could be in a different schema in the same instance, or in an entirely different instance.

DROP TABLE emp_xt;

CREATE TABLE emp_xt (
  EMPNO     NUMBER(4),
  ENAME     VARCHAR2(10),
  JOB       VARCHAR2(9),
  MGR       NUMBER(4),
  HIREDATE  DATE,
  SAL       NUMBER(7,2),
  COMM      NUMBER(7,2),
  DEPTNO    NUMBER(2))
  ORGANIZATION EXTERNAL (
     TYPE ORACLE_DATAPUMP
     DEFAULT DIRECTORY test_dir
     LOCATION ('emp_xt.dmp')
  );

SELECT * FROM emp_xt;

Creating an external table using the ORACLE_DATAPUMP access driver is restricted to dump files created by the external table unload.

Help

The HELP=Y option displays the available parameters.

expdp

expdp help=y

Export: Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production on Tuesday, 23 March, 2004 8:33

Copyright (c) 2003, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


The Data Pump export utility provides a mechanism for transferring data objects
between Oracle databases. The utility is invoked with the following command:

   Example: expdp scott/tiger DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp

You can control how Export runs by entering the 'expdp' command followed
by various parameters. To specify parameters, you use keywords:

   Format:  expdp KEYWORD=value or KEYWORD=(value1,value2,...,valueN)
   Example: expdp scott/tiger DUMPFILE=scott.dmp DIRECTORY=dmpdir SCHEMAS=scott
               or TABLES=(T1:P1,T1:P2), if T1 is partitioned table

USERID must be the first parameter on the command line.

Keyword               Description (Default)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ATTACH                Attach to existing job, e.g. ATTACH [=job name].
CONTENT               Specifies data to unload where the valid keywords are:
                      (ALL), DATA_ONLY, and METADATA_ONLY.
DIRECTORY             Directory object to be used for dumpfiles and logfiles.
DUMPFILE              List of destination dump files (expdat.dmp),
                      e.g. DUMPFILE=scott1.dmp, scott2.dmp, dmpdir:scott3.dmp.
ESTIMATE              Calculate job estimates where the valid keywords are:
                      (BLOCKS) and STATISTICS.
ESTIMATE_ONLY         Calculate job estimates without performing the export.
EXCLUDE               Exclude specific object types, e.g. EXCLUDE=TABLE:EMP.
FILESIZE              Specify the size of each dumpfile in units of bytes.
FLASHBACK_SCN         SCN used to set session snapshot back to.
FLASHBACK_TIME        Time used to get the SCN closest to the specified time.
FULL                  Export entire database (N).
HELP                  Display Help messages (N).
INCLUDE               Include specific object types, e.g. INCLUDE=TABLE_DATA.
JOB_NAME              Name of export job to create.
LOGFILE               Log file name (export.log).
NETWORK_LINK          Name of remote database link to the source system.
NOLOGFILE             Do not write logfile (N).
PARALLEL              Change the number of active workers for current job.
PARFILE               Specify parameter file.
QUERY                 Predicate clause used to export a subset of a table.
SCHEMAS               List of schemas to export (login schema).
STATUS                Frequency (secs) job status is to be monitored where
                      the default (0) will show new status when available.
TABLES                Identifies a list of tables to export - one schema only.
TABLESPACES           Identifies a list of tablespaces to export.
TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK  Verify storage segments of all tables (N).
TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES List of tablespaces from which metadata will be unloaded.
VERSION               Version of objects to export where valid keywords are:
                      (COMPATIBLE), LATEST, or any valid database version.

The following commands are valid while in interactive mode.
Note: abbreviations are allowed

Command               Description
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ADD_FILE              Add dumpfile to dumpfile set.
                      ADD_FILE=dumpfile-name
CONTINUE_CLIENT       Return to logging mode. Job will be re-started if idle.
EXIT_CLIENT           Quit client session and leave job running.
HELP                  Summarize interactive commands.
KILL_JOB              Detach and delete job.
PARALLEL              Change the number of active workers for current job.
                      PARALLEL=.
START_JOB             Start/resume current job.
STATUS                Frequency (secs) job status is to be monitored where
                      the default (0) will show new status when available.
                      STATUS=[interval]
STOP_JOB              Orderly shutdown of job execution and exits the client.
                      STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE performs an immediate shutdown of the
                      Data Pump job.

Oracle 10g Release 2 (10.2) added the following parameters.

Keyword               Description (Default)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COMPRESSION           Reduce size of dumpfile contents where valid
                      keyword values are: (METADATA_ONLY) and NONE.
ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD   Password key for creating encrypted column data.
SAMPLE                Percentage of data to be exported;

The following commands are valid while in interactive mode.
Note: abbreviations are allowed

Command               Description
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FILESIZE              Default filesize (bytes) for subsequent ADD_FILE commands.

Oracle 11g Release 1 (11.1) added the following parameters.

Keyword               Description (Default)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA_OPTIONS          Data layer flags where the only valid value is:
                      XML_CLOBS-write XML datatype in CLOB format
ENCRYPTION            Encrypt part or all of the dump file where valid keyword
                      values are: ALL, DATA_ONLY, METADATA_ONLY,
                      ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY, or NONE.
ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM  Specify how encryption should be done where valid
                      keyword values are: (AES128), AES192, and AES256.
ENCRYPTION_MODE       Method of generating encryption key where valid keyword
                      values are: DUAL, PASSWORD, and (TRANSPARENT).
REMAP_DATA            Specify a data conversion function,
                      e.g. REMAP_DATA=EMP.EMPNO:REMAPPKG.EMPNO.
REUSE_DUMPFILES       Overwrite destination dump file if it exists (N).
TRANSPORTABLE         Specify whether transportable method can be used where
                      valid keyword values are: ALWAYS, (NEVER).

The following commands are valid while in interactive mode.
Note: abbreviations are allowed

Command               Description
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
REUSE_DUMPFILES       Overwrite destination dump file if it exists (N).

Oracle 11g Release 2 (11.2) altered the format of the help output as well as adding the following parameters.

CLUSTER
Utilize cluster resources and distribute workers across the Oracle RAC.
Valid keyword values are: [Y] and N.

SERVICE_NAME
Name of an active Service and associated resource group to constrain Oracle RAC resources.

SOURCE_EDITION
Edition to be used for extracting metadata.

Oracle 12c Release 1 (12.1) added the following parameters.

COMPRESSION_ALGORITHM
Specify the compression algorithm that should be used.
Valid keyword values are: [BASIC], LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH.

ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT
Specifies whether to prompt for the encryption password.
Terminal echo will be suppressed while standard input is read.

VIEWS_AS_TABLES
Identifies one or more views to be exported as tables.
For example, VIEWS_AS_TABLES=HR.EMP_DETAILS_VIEW.

impdp

impdp help=y

Import: Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production on Saturday, 11 September, 2004 17:22

Copyright (c) 2003, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


The Data Pump Import utility provides a mechanism for transferring data objects
between Oracle databases. The utility is invoked with the following command:

     Example: impdp scott/tiger DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp

You can control how Import runs by entering the 'impdp' command followed
by various parameters. To specify parameters, you use keywords:

     Format:  impdp KEYWORD=value or KEYWORD=(value1,value2,...,valueN)
     Example: impdp scott/tiger DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp

USERID must be the first parameter on the command line.

Keyword               Description (Default)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ATTACH                Attach to existing job, e.g. ATTACH [=job name].
CONTENT               Specifies data to load where the valid keywords are:
                      (ALL), DATA_ONLY, and METADATA_ONLY.
DIRECTORY             Directory object to be used for dump, log, and sql files.
DUMPFILE              List of dumpfiles to import from (expdat.dmp),
                      e.g. DUMPFILE=scott1.dmp, scott2.dmp, dmpdir:scott3.dmp.
ESTIMATE              Calculate job estimates where the valid keywords are:
                      (BLOCKS) and STATISTICS.
EXCLUDE               Exclude specific object types, e.g. EXCLUDE=TABLE:EMP.
FLASHBACK_SCN         SCN used to set session snapshot back to.
FLASHBACK_TIME        Time used to get the SCN closest to the specified time.
FULL                  Import everything from source (Y).
HELP                  Display help messages (N).
INCLUDE               Include specific object types, e.g. INCLUDE=TABLE_DATA.
JOB_NAME              Name of import job to create.
LOGFILE               Log file name (import.log).
NETWORK_LINK          Name of remote database link to the source system.
NOLOGFILE             Do not write logfile.
PARALLEL              Change the number of active workers for current job.
PARFILE               Specify parameter file.
QUERY                 Predicate clause used to import a subset of a table.
REMAP_DATAFILE        Redefine datafile references in all DDL statements.
REMAP_SCHEMA          Objects from one schema are loaded into another schema.
REMAP_TABLESPACE      Tablespace object are remapped to another tablespace.
REUSE_DATAFILES       Tablespace will be initialized if it already exists (N).
SCHEMAS               List of schemas to import.
SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES Skip indexes that were set to the Index Unusable state.
SQLFILE               Write all the SQL DDL to a specified file.
STATUS                Frequency (secs) job status is to be monitored where
                      the default (0) will show new status when available.
STREAMS_CONFIGURATION Enable the loading of Streams metadata
TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION   Action to take if imported object already exists.
                      Valid keywords: (SKIP), APPEND, REPLACE and TRUNCATE.
TABLES                Identifies a list of tables to import.
TABLESPACES           Identifies a list of tablespaces to import.
TRANSFORM             Metadata transform to apply (Y/N) to specific objects.
                      Valid transform keywords: SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES and STORAGE.
                      ex. TRANSFORM=SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES:N:TABLE.
TRANSPORT_DATAFILES   List of datafiles to be imported by transportable mode.
TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK  Verify storage segments of all tables (N).
TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES List of tablespaces from which metadata will be loaded.
                      Only valid in NETWORK_LINK mode import operations.
VERSION               Version of objects to export where valid keywords are:
                      (COMPATIBLE), LATEST, or any valid database version.
                      Only valid for NETWORK_LINK and SQLFILE.

The following commands are valid while in interactive mode.
Note: abbreviations are allowed

Command               Description (Default)11g
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CONTINUE_CLIENT       Return to logging mode. Job will be re-started if idle.
EXIT_CLIENT           Quit client session and leave job running.
HELP                  Summarize interactive commands.
KILL_JOB              Detach and delete job.
PARALLEL              Change the number of active workers for current job.
                      PARALLEL=.
START_JOB             Start/resume current job.
                      START_JOB=SKIP_CURRENT will start the job after skipping
                      any action which was in progress when job was stopped.
STATUS                Frequency (secs) job status is to be monitored where
                      the default (0) will show new status when available.
                      STATUS=[interval]
STOP_JOB              Orderly shutdown of job execution and exits the client.
                      STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE performs an immediate shutdown of the
                      Data Pump job.

Oracle 10g Release 2 (10.2) added the following parameter.

Keyword               Description (Default)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD   Password key for accessing encrypted column data.
                      This parameter is not valid for network import jobs.

Oracle 11g Release 1 (11.1) added the following parameters.

Keyword               Description (Default)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA_OPTIONS          Data layer flags where the only valid value is:
                      SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS-constraint errors are not fatal.
PARTITION_OPTIONS     Specify how partitions should be transformed where the
                      valid keywords are: DEPARTITION, MERGE and (NONE)
REMAP_DATA            Specify a data conversion function,
                      e.g. REMAP_DATA=EMP.EMPNO:REMAPPKG.EMPNO

Oracle 11g Release 2 (11.2) altered the format of the help output as well as adding the following parameters.

CLUSTER
Utilize cluster resources and distribute workers across the Oracle RAC.
Valid keyword values are: [Y] and N.

SERVICE_NAME
Name of an active Service and associated resource group to constrain Oracle RAC resources.

SOURCE_EDITION
Edition to be used for extracting metadata.

TARGET_EDITION
Edition to be used for loading metadata.

Oracle 12c Release 1 (12.1) added the following parameters.

ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT
Specifies whether to prompt for the encryption password.
Terminal echo will be suppressed while standard input is read.

TRANSPORTABLE
Options for choosing transportable data movement.
Valid keywords are: ALWAYS and [NEVER].
Only valid in NETWORK_LINK mode import operations.

VIEWS_AS_TABLES
Identifies one or more views to be imported as tables.
For example, VIEWS_AS_TABLES=HR.EMP_DETAILS_VIEW.
Note that in network import mode, a table name may be appended
to the view name.

For more information see:

Hope this helps. Regards Tim...

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