MySQL : Installation on Linux
This article gives examples of installing MySQL on both Oracle Linux 6 (RHEL6/CentOS6) and Oracle Linux 7 (RHEL7/CentOS7). It also includes examples of MySQL 5.6 and 5.7 installations. Pick the combination that you need.
- Start the MySQL Service (mysqld)
- Basic Configuration
- Secure the Installation
- Create Database
If you want to run the most recent versions, you can use the MySQL Yum repository available here. Download and install the repository package.
# # Example from installing 5.6 on Oracle Linux 6. # rpm -Uvh mysql-community-release-el6-4.noarch.rpm # # Example from installing 5.7 on Oracle Linux 7. # rpm -Uvh mysql57-community-release-el7-7
With the repository in place, you can install the latest version using the same command shown previously.
# # Example from installing 5.6 on Oracle Linux 6. # yum install mysql mysql-server -y # # Example from installing 5.7 on Oracle Linux 7. # yum install mysql-community-server -y
If you want MySQL Workbench, issue the following installation command.
# # Example from installing 5.6 on Oracle Linux 6. # yum install mysql-workbench -y # # Example from installing 5.7 on Oracle Linux 7. # yum install mysql-workbench-community -y
If you don't need the latest MySQL version, you can use the version present in the regular RHEL/Oracle Linux distribution.
Start the MySQL Service (mysqld)
Make sure the
mysqld service is set to start on reboot and start the service. On startup the service will prompt you with information on how to secure the installation. The example below is based on an installation on Oracle Linux 6.
# chkconfig mysqld on # service mysqld start Initializing MySQL database: Installing MySQL system tables... OK Filling help tables... OK To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THE MySQL root USER ! To do so, start the server, then issue the following commands: /usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password' /usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h rhce1.localdomain password 'new-password' Alternatively you can run: /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation which will also give you the option of removing the test databases and anonymous user created by default. This is strongly recommended for production servers. See the manual for more instructions. You can start the MySQL daemon with: cd /usr ; /usr/bin/mysqld_safe & You can test the MySQL daemon with mysql-test-run.pl cd /usr/mysql-test ; perl mysql-test-run.pl Please report any problems with the /usr/bin/mysqlbug script! [ OK ] Starting mysqld: [ OK ] #
If you are using Oracle Linux 7, you will need to perform the following.
# systemctl enable mysqld # systemctl start mysqld
Make sure SELinux is running in permissive mode, so you can change the locations of the MySQL files.
# setenforce Permissive
Make the setting permanent, by editing the "/etc/selinux/config" file, setting the following value.
Create directories to hold data and binary logs.
# mkdir -p /u01/data # mkdir -p /u01/log_bin # mkdir -p /u01/tmpdir # chown -R mysql:mysql /u01 # chmod -R 755 /u01
# # Oracle Linux 6 # service mysqld stop # # Oracle Linux 7 # systemctl stop mysqld
Edit the "/etc/my.cnf" file, setting the following values in the "[mysqld]" section. Be sure to reflect any path changes you require in these settings.
user=mysql log_bin=/u01/log_bin/myDB datadir=/u01/data tmpdir=/u01/tmpdir
# # Oracle Linux 6 # service mysqld start # # Oracle Linux 7 # systemctl start mysqld
Secure the Installation
As suggested by the startup output, run the "/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation" script to secure the installation. The process is a little different if you are using MySQL 5.7 compared to previous versions. First, let's take a look at securing MySQL 5.6. Hit return when prompted for the root password and pick all the default options.
# /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY! In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank, so you should just press enter here. Enter current password for root (enter for none): OK, successfully used password, moving on... Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL root user without the proper authorisation. Set root password? [Y/n] Y New password: Re-enter new password: Password updated successfully! Reloading privilege tables.. ... Success! By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y ... Success! Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y ... Success! By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y - Dropping test database... ... Success! - Removing privileges on test database... ... Success! Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y ... Success! Cleaning up... All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL installation should now be secure. Thanks for using MySQL! #
If you are securing MySQL 5.7, there is a random root password defined by default. You can see what it is by issuing the following command.
# grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
Once you run the "/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation" script, you will be asked to supply the root password. Use the password displayed by the previous command. In this version, the default answer to every question is "N", so you will have to explicitly answer "Y/y" for every prompt.
You are now ready to start using MySQL.
There are additional hardening steps you should consider, as described here.
The first thing you will probably want to do is create a database. First you must connect to MySQL.
$ mysql --user=root --password Enter password: Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MySQL connection id is 23 Server version: 5.1.67 Source distribution Copyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. mysql>
Create a new database using the following command.
mysql> create database mydatabase; Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec) mysql>
You can see the current databases using the following command.
mysql> show databases; +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | information_schema | | mydatabase | | mysql | +--------------------+ 3 rows in set (0.00 sec) mysql>
To switch between databases using the following command.
mysql> use mydatabase; Database changed mysql>
You can make new connections directly to the database as follows.
$ mysql --user=root --database=mydatabase --password Enter password: Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MySQL connection id is 24 Server version: 5.1.67 Source distribution Copyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. mysql> select database(); +------------+ | database() | +------------+ | mydatabase | +------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec) mysql>
If you are using SELinux in "enforcing" mode on the server, moving the
log_bin directories can cause SELinux to complain. You will either need to set it to permissive, explained here, or put the correct policies in place.
Policies already in place due to default installation.
# semanage port -a -t mysqld_port_t -p tcp 3306 # semanage fcontext -a -t mysqld_etc_t "/etc/my.cnf" # semanage fcontext -a -t mysqld_log_t "/etc/mysqld.log"
The following policies will need to be applied if you've altered the
# semanage fcontext -a -t mysqld_db_t "/u01/data(/.*)?" # restorecon -Rv /u01/data # semanage fcontext -a -t mysqld_db_t "/u01/log_bin(/.*)?" # restorecon -Rv /u01/log_bin
For more information see:
- Linux : Using a Yum Repository to Install MySQL
- MySQL Documentation: MySQL Reference Manuals
- How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
- MySQL Security Best Practices (Hardening MySQL Tips)
- SELinux and MySQL
Hope this helps. Regards Tim...