Multitenant : Massive Changes in 19c and 20c


Is it safe to talk about this now? The announcement has happened and Mike Dietrich has posted about it, so I think so…

A couple of massive things have happened regarding the multitenant architecture in Oracle 19c and 20c.


Prior to 19c, you were only allowed to have a single user-defined pluggable database (plus a root container and a proxy) without having to license the full multitenant option. I’ve been a big proponent of single-tennant or lone-PDB, but I can understand the reluctance of people to go that way, as it’s harder to realise the benefits, even though they do exist.

Oracle have now announced from 19c onward you can have 3 user-defined PDBs, without having the multitenant option. This is similar to what we got with 18c XE. As Mike points out, the documentation has already been changed to reflect this.

“For all offerings, if you are not licensed for Oracle Multitenant, then you may have up to 3 PDBs in a given container database at any time.”

Database Licensing Information User Manual

I think this is will be a massive boost for the uptake of the multitenant architecture. I’ve got some 19c stuff that will probably make use of this within days of me getting back to work!



Are you one of those people that have been saying, “Screw that multitenant stuff. I’m sticking with non-CDB architecture!” Good luck with that. In 20c the non-CDB architecture will be desupported.

You probably know the non-CDB architecture was deprecated since, but in 20c non-CDB is no longer an option, unless you are happy about running without support I guess.

This means your 20c upgrade will also include a migration to the multitenant architecture. What I would suggest is you start down that road today by moving to multitenant in 19c, then when you have to move to the next long term support release (2?c), you won’t be getting any surprises. What’s more, the 3 PDBs thing in 19c makes that all the more attractive!

If this announcement has made you panic, don’t worry. I’ve written a bunch of stuff about multitenant over the years, and there’s a YouTube playlist too.



PS. Smiles smugly to himself that he invested the time into learning multitenant from 12.1 onward…

PPS. I will be going through my existing articles amending any mention of licensing and PDB limits and desupport etc. Those changes won’t happen overnight. 🙂

Author: Tim...

DBA, Developer, Author, Trainer.

5 thoughts on “Multitenant : Massive Changes in 19c and 20c”

  1. Hi

    Most people I meet who are not willing to use Multitenant is not because of “Screw that multitenant stuff. I’m sticking with non-CDB architecture!”, it is because it has to be paid. Oracle finally understood noone is willing to pay for it so put the 3 PDB free option now.


  2. Alex: Lone-PDB has always been free, and the multitenant architecture still includes some very useful stuff, even when running with a single PDB. I admit, it is not as attractive as when you can use more, but still very useful.



  3. I suspect once people get a taste of the numerous benefits of multitennant, they will start buying licenses more readily. Those that have ignored this new architecture have sone so to their own detriment.

  4. Hi Tim, Can I have on same server more than one cdb with 3 user pdbs each of them and Will be Ok whithout License Issuess (Without Multitenant Option).

    Best Regards.

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